Kidney Cancer Surgery

Kidney Cancer and Robotic Kidney Cancer Surgery

What is Kidney Cancer?

Kidney cancer is the cancer which starts when cells in the kidney body begin to grow uncontrollably. Sometimes the cancer remains limited to the kidney, while in other cases it spreads to nearby tissues and organs.

Types of Kidney Cancer

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), also called as renal cell adenocarcinoma, is the most common type of kidney cancer. About 90% of kidney cancers are renal cell carcinomas.

Other types of kidney cancers include renal sarcomas, transitional cell carcinomas, and Wilms tumours.

Non-Cancerous (Benign) Kidney Tumours

Not all tumours in the kidney are cancerous. Some are benign (non-cancerous), and do not spread (metastasize) to other parts. However, they should still be removed as they can grow and create problems later.

Most of the benign kidney tumours are removed or destroyed by using the same type of treatments as used for kidney cancers, like robotic kidney surgery, etc.

Kidney Cancer Surgery

Kidney Cancer Statistics

  • Kidney cancer is among the 10 most common cancers for both women and men.
  • Kidney cancer is diagnosed in about 190,000 people worldwide every year.
  • Overall, the lifetime risk for a person developing kidney cancer is 1.6%.
  • Kidney cancer is slightly more common in men than in women.
  • Kidney cancer is mostly observed in older people with an average age of 64 years. It is quite uncommon in people younger below 45 years of age.
  • Kidney cancer can be curable if diagnosed early, in which case the survival rate of a patient can be from 79 to 100 percent.

Causes and Risk Factors

It is not yet clear what causes certain kidney cells to become cancerous. However, there are certain risk-factors associated with the cancer which increase the chance of a person developing this cancer at some point in their lives.

Following are the main kidney cancer risk factors found by scientists:

  • Genetics and Heredity: Some people inherit the DNA from their parents which give them a tendency to develop kidney cancer. This risk is highest in siblings of those with the cancer.
  • Smoking: The risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is higher in smokers than non-smokers. Even after giving up smoking, it may take a few years for the risk of getting kidney cancer to reduce in smokers to as much as non-smokers.
  • Obesity: Overweight people also have higher risk of getting RCC due to the presence of certain hormones that lead to this cancer.
  • Exposures to certain substances: Workplace exposure to certain substances like cadmium, organic solvents like trichloroethylene and certain herbicides, have been known to increase the risk for kidney cancer.
  • High blood pressure: People with high blood pressure may be at increased risk of kidney cancer. It is also believed by researchers that certain blood pressure medicines may also up the kidney cancer risk.
  • Gender: Kidney cancer affects almost twice as many men as women.
  • Ethnicity and race: People of certain races like African Americans, Alaska natives, American Indians, etc. are known to be at a higher risk of kidney cancer than whites.

Smaller and early stage kidney cancers may not generally present any noticeable symptoms, but larger and later stage ones do. Some of these kidney cancer symptoms include:

  • Lower back pain on one side
  • A lump on the lower back or side
  • Anaemia
  • Blood in the urine (Haematuria)
  • Fatigue
  • Loss of appetite
  • Weight loss
  • Fever that doesn’t go away

Please note that the above signs are very common with other types of cancer, as well as non-cancerous diseases. Therefore, if you notice any of the above, consult your doctor who will diagnose the actual cause of these symptoms.

The stage of kidney cancer determines if and how much the cancer has spread. Most doctors use a combination of number and TNM system to describe the stage of kidney cancer.

The TNM system:

This is a common staging system for all types of cancers.

  • ‘T’ is for tumour, which tells whether the kidney has a tumour and how big it is
  • ‘N’ is for lymph nodes, which indicates if the cancer has spread from the kidney to nearby tissues and lymph nodes, and
  • ‘M’ is for metastases, which indicates whether the kidney cancer has spread to other body parts.

The Stages of Kidney Cancer

Depending on the T, N and M stages, the doctor will determine the overall stage of a kidney cancer.

There are the following 4 stages of kidney cancer:

  • Stage 1 – The cancer is less than 7 cm across and is completely inside the kidney
  • Stage 2 – The cancer is more than 7 cm across but is still completely inside the kidney
  • Stage 3 – The cancer has spread to the adrenal gland or one or more major veins, but not to more than one lymph node
  • Stage 4 – The cancer has grown into the surrounding tissues as well as more than one lymph nodes, OR it has spread to another part of the body

Once the kidney cancer and its stage is confirmed, your doctor will present various treatment options to you. The final treatment choice should be made after considering the cancer’s stage, patient’s overall health, probability of successfully treating the disease, and possible side effects.

Generally, the following kidney cancer treatment options are available:

  • Active surveillance (wait and watch)
  • Ablation and local therapies
  • Surgery
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiation therapy
  • Immunotherapy, etc.

You doctor will explain what how each of these different treatments work and which might be the most suitable one in your case.

Robotic Kidney Cancer Surgery at CRS

Centre for Robotic Surgery (CRS) is an initiative of Muljibhai Patel Urological Hospital, which is one the best kidney hospital in India famously known as the ‘Nadiad Kidney Hospital’.

What is Nephrectomy?

A nephrectomy is the surgery done to remove of a part of or complete kidney. This procedure is done for:

  • Kidney cancer treatment
  • Treatment of kidney damage, kidney stones treatment, kidney cysts, etc.
  • Kidney transplantation of healthy kidney from the donor to the patient.

Types of Nephrectomy Procedures

There are three types of approaches that can be used to conduct Nephrectomy: open surgery, traditional laparoscopic surgery, and the innovative robotic nephrectomy.

Robotic kidney surgery has been proven beneficial to not just the patients, but the robotic surgeons as well due to its various advantages. At Centre for Robotic Surgery – A best kidney transplant hospital in India, the da Vinci Robotic Surgical System is used by our kidney specialist doctor for kidney cancer treatment, kidney stones treatment and other kidney related surgeries.

Robotic Kidney Surgery Using the da Vinci Surgical System

The da Vinci Si® Robotic Surgery used at Centre for Robotic Surgery is a state-of-the-art technology which enables the robotic surgeons to perform complex surgeries with great ease and precision.

kidney cancer surgery

Key elements of a Robotic Kidney Surgery include:

  1. Better Visualization: This is due to the 3-D, high-definition camera of the da Vinci system which provides magnified visuals to the robotic surgeon.
  2. Better Precision: The robotic arms hold specially designed instruments which are used by the robotic surgeon to conduct the robotic kidney surgery. The surgeon controls the robot’s arms with special hand controls. This converts the surgeon’s movements into precise and complex movements, which he/she couldn’t achieve otherwise. The robot’s wrists have a 360 degree rotation, which increases the range of motion for the surgeon and improves accuracy.
  3. Ease of Surgery: The surgeon performs the procedure sitting at his console and controls the robot while looking into its vision system. Due to this, the surgeon’s fatigue is reduced and the robotic kidney cancer surgery is completed with ease.

Kidney Surgeries at CRS

The following procedures are performed at Centre for Robotic Surgery for treating kidney cancer surgery, kidney transplant surgery, kidney stones treatment and different types of kidney diseases and conditions:

  1. Robotic Partial Nephrectomy: In this, a part of the kidney having tumour is removed by robotic surgery, while preserving the remaining kidney.
  2. Robotic Radical Nephrectomy: In this, the entire kidney is removed to counter the effects of a large cancer/tumour/disease.
  3. Robotic Donor Nephrectomy/Kidney Transplantation: In this, a healthy kidney is transplanted from a living or deceased donor to the patient.
  4. Robotic Nephro-Ureterectomy: This involves removing the kidney as well as ureter for transitional cell carcinoma that affects the kidney or ureter.
  5. Robotic Pyeloplasty:In this, the blockage is removed in the area where the kidney meets the ureter.
  6. Robotic Pyelolithotomy: This is the procedure in which large kidney stones are removed when they can’t be removed by other methods.
  7. Robotic Anatropic Nephrolithotomy: This is a procedure used to remove large renal calculi.
  8. Robotic Nephro-Ureterectomy: In this, the renal pelvis, kidney and entire ureter are removed so as to increase survival likelihood for patients having transitional cell cancer.

In addition to the above, other procedures involving kidneys are also performed at the Centre for Robotic Surgery – A leading kidney hospital in India.

Benefits of Robotic Kidney Cancer Surgery

At Centre for Robotic Surgery – best kidney hospital in India, the state-of-the-art da Vinci Surgical System is used for surgical procedures for kidney cancer as well as other kidney issues.

Long-term studies like this one have shown that robotic surgeries such as Robotic Partial Nephrectomy have less blood loss, minimal effects on renal function, and an excellent safety profile when performed at high-volume centers.

Among the various benefits of robotic kidney cancer surgery are:

  • Shorter hospital stay
  • Lower blood loss
  • Lesser scarring
  • Lesser pain
  • More precise tumour removal and kidney reconstruction
  • Excellent chances of preserving the kidney in certain operations
  • Lower rate of operative complications such as post-surgery infections
  • Faster return to normal lifestyle

The above are obtained due to the various advanced technological features of the da vinci robotic surgical system , which provide better vision and precise movements to the robotic surgeons and help them achieve better results during a surgery.

Kidney Cancer & Kidney Cancer Surgery: Frequently Asked Questions