For most bladder cancers, surgery is a big part of the treatment. Depending on the stage of the cancer, the type of surgery required depends upon the stage of cancer. When the bladder cancer has progressed to an advanced stage, a part of or the complete bladder may need to be removed. This type of surgery is known as Cystectomy.
Types of Cystectomy
Following are the main types of Cystectomy procedures:
1. Partial Cystectomy: This type of procedure can be done for those cases in which the cancer is not very large and present only in a single site. In such a case, just the cancerous portion along with a small part of the bladder can be removed instead of the whole bladder.
As a result, the patient can keep his bladder and doesn’t require any reconstructive surgery. Though, due to the removal of bladder portion, the amount of urine it can hold is less, leading to the issue of frequent urination. An important point to note about partial cystectomy is that there are chances of the cancer developing in another part of the bladder wall.
2. Radical Cystectomy: When the cancer is large or has spread to more than one parts of the bladder, radical cystectomy operation is required. In this, the entire bladder and nearby lymph nodes are removed. Additionally, the prostate and seminal vesicles in men and the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, and a small portion of the vagina in women may also have to be removed.
Both open as well as laparoscopic (keyhole) surgeries can be opted for a cystectomy, however, the advantages of laparoscopic are definitely higher.
Robotic Radical Cystectomy
Laparoscopic surgeries have been preferred by surgeons and oncologists for the last many years due to their minimally invasive and nerve-sparing features. With the advent of robotic surgery in the last decade, minimally invasive surgery has been propelled to an even higher level. While the traditional open surgeries would lead to significant blood loss, increased risks and complications, and tissue and nerve damage, robotic surgeries have overcome these disadvantages.
Robotic radical cystectomy, done is most of the robotic surgery centres using the da Vinci surgical method, is an advanced and more efficient method of surgery for bladder cancer. The surgeon controls the robotic arms to conduct a more precise and effective surgery. To learn more about how robotic surgery works, please click here.
Advantages of Robotic Cystectomy
The robotic surgery for bladder cancer has the following main advantages over open surgery:
1. Smaller incisions that do not damage that delicate nerves and muscle tissues.
2. Smaller scars
3. Lesser pain
4. Lesser blood loss
5. Faster recovery time leading to shorter hospital stay
6. Lesser risk of post-operative risks and complications
It is important to note that any type of surgery has inherent risks and side-effects, however, with robotic surgery, these complications can be greatly reduced.
To learn more about the possible treatments for bladder cancer and other bladder related issues, please contact our experts here.
Radical Prostatectomy is the operation done to remove the prostate gland and nearby tissue in order to remove prostate cancer. Earlier, the prostatectomies were done using open surgeries, but with the modern advances in the field of surgery, laparoscopic surgeries (also known as minimally invasive surgeries or keyhole surgeries) have become the more preferred and common type. And even though there always are certain risks involved when it comes to surgery, for prostate cancer surgery turns out to be the most effective type of treatment as it removes malignant tumors without producing the painful side effects of radiation therapy or chemotherapy.
During the last decade, robot-assisted prostatectomy procedures have vastly outnumbered the open radical prostatectomy surgeries. In fact,according to a study conducted in 2013, robot-assisted prostatectomies accounted for around 85% of all radical prostatectomies (compared to just 22% in 2003).
Here are some of the main reasons why both surgeons and patients prefer robotic surgery for prostate cancer over the open surgeries.
Benefits of Robot Assisted Radical Prostatectomy
Some of the most notable advantages of robotic prostate cancer surgery include:
Robotic surgical systems like the da Vinci system (also used at Centre for Robotic Surgery), are known to provide better clinical results for prostate cancer surgery as compared to other traditional procedures. This is since such a robotic surgical system offers the surgeon with more degrees of freedom than a human hand and magnified 3-D image of the ongoing procedure, as well as enables the surgeon to make much more precise movements inside the incision than they ever could on their own.
As a result, the efficiency and ease of robotic radical prostatectomy is far higher compared to non-robotic surgeries, and it also reduces damage to the healthy tissue and scar tissue build up. Therefore, the overall clinical results are far superior in a robotic prostatectomy.
While any prostatectomy is not completely safe, the risk of complications is much less in a robot-assisted radical prostatectomy than in other types. The development of infection at the incision site, which is a primary cause of delayed recovery, is more common with open surgeries compared to robotic.
The surgical systems such as the da Vinci surgical system requires only four to five incision which are smaller than two inches; while other traditional open surgeries require bigger, six-to-eight inch incisions instead. As a result, the chances of post-operative infections are much higher in non-robotic surgeries.
The use of robotic surgical systems has many benefits, chief of those being smaller incisions, less number of sutures, more effective removal of cancerous tissue, less damage to the healthy tissue, minimal bleeding, and reduced contact between the incision walls and the surgical instruments. All these benefits translate directly into a speedier and more hassle-free post prostatectomy recovery of the patient.
Apart from the obvious aesthetic benefit, minimum scarring caused by robotic surgeries also ensures better healing. This is because in certain rare cases, open surgeries can lead to excess scar-tissue build up, which can affect the normal functioning of the prostate.
And therefore, among the various prostate cancer treatment options, robotic radical prostatectomy has fast become a top choice for both doctors and patients. To learn more about prostate cancer, outcomes of robotic prostatectomy, post-operative care, etc., click here.
Tips to help keep your kidneys healthy
Kidney Stone and Kidney Stone Surgery
At times a small Calcium Crystal Stone forms inside the part of the Kidney where the Urine is collected. The stones cause pain while urinating. The problem increases when Calcium Crystal Stones falls into the Ureter, a tube that drains the fluid from the Kidneys in to the bladder. There the stones prevent Urine from coming out of the Kidneys and causes severe pain.
Kidney removes waste from the body and filters the Blood to make Urine. The same Urine flows from the kidney into the bladder through the Ureter, a thin tube that connects the two. The Bladder empties through the Urethra, a tube much wider than the Ureter.
Urine from the Kidney excrete a variety of minerals and chemicals, when sometimes these minerals and chemicals combine to form stones. With the passage of time, the stones grow in size, sometimes almost an inch in diameter or even larger.
How are they formed?
The reason isn’t exactly known, but usually changes in the acid-base balance (pH) of the urine and the concentration of minerals and chemicals within the urine are all factors that can signify the formation of a stone. Concentrated urine often occurs during an episode of dehydration, setting the stage for the beginning of stone formation. The consequences of that stone, when it is large enough to cause an obstruction, may occur weeks, months, or years later.
A Kidney stone can infect the Kidney with Pyelonephritis, an inflammation of the renal parenchyma, calyces, and pelvis that is commonly caused by bacterial infection that can spread to the urinary tract or travel through the bloodstream to the kidneys.
When kidney stones pass from the urine collection system into the ureter, they can act like a dam preventing easy flow of urine from the kidney into the bladder. This causes urine to back up, increasing pressure and swelling within the kidney.
Pain in the process
Pain from the Kidney and as the stone passes through the Ureter, the pain increases. Kidney Pain is also known as renal colic Stone can be excruciating and its intensity is similar to that of pain experienced during a child birth. The pain starts from the lower back and radiates to the front of abdomen and in males, it may cause testicular or scrotal pain. It makes the individual totally uncomfortable. Kidney Stone has side effects like Nausea, Vomiting and Sweating.
If not treated the intense pain would be continuous and the pain would considerably increase. Once the stone is in the Bladder, the obstruction is relieved.
Passing of the stone
Since a Urethra is much larger in size than the Ureter, passing of the stone is an easy thing. It passes easily while Urinating and most patients cannot tell when they have eliminated the stone from their bladder.
The severity of the pain does not depend on the size of the stone, but it rather depends on the amount of obstruction and Kidney swelling. Many a times, when Kidney stone passes through the urine’s, a small amount of blood is visible.
In next article we will understand the symptoms and kidney stone surgery.
WHY ARE KIDNEYS IMPORTANT ?
Your Kidneys are responsible for five critical body functions
- Keeps the blood clean through filtration of the waste products and elimination of excessive fluids from the body in the form of urine
- Maintains proper balance of fluid in the body
- Secretes a hormone called Erythropoietin, responsible for stimulating the production of RBC (Red Blood Cells) in the Bone Marrow
- Produces an Enzyme called Renin, which helps maintain the body Blood Pressure
- Converts Vitamin D to its most active form
EFFECTS OF MODERN LIFESTYLE ON KIDNEYS
There is a general notion that all Kidney Diseases are rare and untreatable. This is far from the truth and with the progress in Science and Technology, most of the noted diseases can now be treated but modern lifestyle of a majority of people still negatively impacts people’s health which includes damage to the Kidneys. It is therefore important for everyone to be responsible and maintain a healthy lifestyle.
For Kidneys especially, bigger the load, faster they deteriorate. In this article, we focus on some simple but effective ways that can help a person minimize the stress on their Kidneys.
First of all let us look at some factors that puts considerable stress on Kidneys,
PRIMARY RISK FOR KIDNEY DISEASES
- High Diabetes,
- High Blood Pressure,
SECONDARY RISK FOR KIDNEY DISEASES
- Heart Disease
- Autoimmune Diseases;
- Urinary Tract Infections
- and Systemic Infections
STAGES OF KIDNEY DAMAGE
Stage 1: Slight Kidney damage
Stage 2: Mild decrease in Kidney function
Stage 3: Moderate decrease in Kidney function
Stage 4: Severe decrease in Kidney function
Stage 5: End-stage Renal Disease
TIPS FOR HEALTHY KIDNEY
Be active and eat healthy: Weight control is an important factor to control the Kidney Disease. A healthy routine and active lifestyle helps control the weight. Several studies indicate that Kidney malfunctions and Obesity are inter-related and an overweight person has double the chances of developing Kidney problems. Regular exercising with proper diet not only keeps a person fit, but also act as a preventive measure against Kidney disease.
Control BP and Diabetes: Cases of Kidney diseases as a secondary illness are getting more and more evident, especially with the people suffering from Diabetes and Hypertension. Such people should be extra careful regarding their health and take steps to control their blood sugar level to keep the Kidney disease at bay.
Reduce the salt intake: Excessive salt in the diet effects the body blood pressure. An increased blood pressure would put excessive amount of strain on Kidneys resulting in various Kidney disease. Hence once should control the excessive amount of salt intake in the body.
Smoking and Tobacco: Chewing Tobacco deteriorates the Kidneys. People who smoke a lot have higher chances of Heart Diseases. Both the factors combined to contribute towards harming the Kidneys. A Tobacco users and smokers should cut down the intake and slowly quite the practice.
Regular Screenings: There is a need to encourage patients suffering from Diabetes and Hypertension to undergo a systematic CKD screenings at regular intervals. People with Diabetes and high Blood Pressure have high risk of developing a CKD. Get your Kidneys screened regularly and know the disease in early stages.
Kidney performs the central role in a human body. It is as important as Heart or Lungs. Many organs of the body are dependent on Kidney to function healthily. Kidney removes toxic waste and excessive fluid from blood. It also helps control the Blood Pressure and produce Hormones which are responsible for Strong and healthy bones.
According to a survey conducted for Kidney Disease, Approximately 26 million Americas were suffering from Chronic Kidney Disease till 2012. Since then the number has multiplied. In order to bring down this ever increasing number, people needs to be serious about preventing such fatal disease.
Primary risk for Kidney disease includes factors like High Diabetes, High Blood Pressure, Family History, Heart Disease etc. Obesity; Autoimmune Diseases; Urinary Tract Infections and Systemic Infections are the secondary risks.
Kidney damage occurs in stages and in most of the cases, body does not show any kind of symptom till Kidney is damaged up to 90%.
Stages of Kidney Damage
Stage 1: Slight Kidney damage
Stage 2: Mild decrease in Kidney function
Stage 3: Moderate decrease in Kidney function
Stage 4: Severe decrease in Kidney function
Stage 5: End-stage Renal Disease
Steps for maintaining a Healthy Kidney
- Keep a control on the Blood Pressure and take every preventive measures against its increased level
- For people suffering from Diabetes, have a control on your Glucose Level
- Keep the cholesterol level in the appropriate range
- If on medications, take the prescriptions on time
- If you have a high salt intake, cut-off the intake and aim for less than 1,500 milligram sodium per day
- Eat healthy food like fruits, frozen vegetables etc.
- Have a limit on your alcohol intake
- Exercise should be a compulsory part of daily routine
- For those who are overweight need to work on reducing the weight
Smokers need to quit it slowly and gradually as smoking would led to serious Kidney damages
People suffering from Chronic Kidney Diseases suffer from a very subtle symptoms which often go unnoticed. The time period between Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and Kidney failure is undetermined. It may take years and also may happen soon, depending on case-to-case basis. Kidney failures can be determined with early stage symptoms which are necessary to be identified. Let us discuss the symptoms of kidney failures:
• The beginning is often asymptomatic which means there would be a very less amount of visible symptoms but as the disease advances the kidneys would be unable to regulate water, balance the electrolytes, remove the waste from the body, and produce red blood cells. Such a person would often undergo Lethargic behavior, uneasiness, weakness, short of breath, and general swelling.
• The body would be unable to manufacture bicarbonate due to which the body acidity increases. It is known as metabolic acidosis. Such body dysfunction would alter the enzyme and oxygen metabolism which would end with an organ failure.
• Kidney would not be able to excrete the potassium from the body thereby increasing its level in the serum and it causes fatal heart rhythm disturbance.
• Urea level rises in the blood and it affects various body organs like brain, heart, muscles and would also be responsible for low calcium levels in the body.
• Weakness may be due to anemia but in certain cases the red blood cell counts starts decreasing due to the lower level of erythropoietin which is caused due to the kidney failure. It reduces the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood and hence the body gets tired very soon.
• Loss of appetite and fatigue becomes regular and if it continues, it may affect the mental balance which may end up in comma.
• Rising blood pressure due to excess of fluid present in the body is another symptom for kidney failure and the fluid may start to deposit on lungs which ends with heart failure.
The symptoms of kidney failure would vary a lot depending on patient to patient and also it depends on what kind of treatment you undergo.
Test required to diagnose the Kidney Failure
• Kidney failures can be diagnosed with blood test. The buildup of waste product would determine the kidney failures. BUN, GFR, and Creatinine are essential factors to determine the condition of kidneys. When the BUN and Creatinine level rises up in the blood and the GFR level decreases, the kidney failure is confirmed. The above mentioned three factors determines the rate with which the blood is filtered through the kidneys. The rate would always differ depending on the age, gender, and race of the person.
• Urine can be used to determine the Kidney failure. With a urine test, the doctor would measure the amount of protein and the presence of abnormal cells in it. If protein is found in the urine, it points towards something abnormal in the body. Abnormally aggregated red and white blood cells in the kidney denotes the presence of Kidney Disease.
• Abdominal Ultrasound test can determine the size of the kidney. If any obstruction is seen in he reports, it denotes presence of Kidney Disease.
We celebrate World Kidney Day on every 2nd Thursday of March each year. This year we celebrated on 14th March 2013. Now it is obvious that why do we focus much more in saving our kidneys. What type of work the kidneys really do for us, why they are so important and why it is essential to take care of the kidneys. This article is all about the workings of our kidney. They are the waste disposal system of our body, which keeps on working 24 hours a day, 7 days a week and 365 days of a year – that is without taking a single leave. When it takes a leave, our life comes to danger. Let’s explore why:
Continue reading “How Kidneys Work – The Vital Role of the Kidney in Human Beings”
Kidneys play a vital role in keeping us alive and well. World Kidney Day spreads the word that kidney disease is common, harmful & treatable: Early diagnosis and treatment improves the outcome. Kidney diseases are silent killers, which will largely affect your quality of life. There are however several easy ways to reduce the risk of developing kidney disease.
Continue reading “Kidneys for Life; Stop Acute Kidney Surgery – World Kidney Day”