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World Blood Donor Day – 2015


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” If you’re a blood donor, you’re a hero to someone, somewhere, who received your gracious gift of life. ”

June 2015 — “Thank you for saving my life”. It focuses on thanking blood donors who save lives every day through their blood donations and strongly encourages more people all over the world to donate blood voluntarily and regularly with the slogan “Give freely, give often. Blood donation matters.” The campaign aims to highlight stories from people whose lives have been saved through blood donation, as a way of motivating regular blood donors to continue giving blood and people in good health who have never given blood to begin doing so.

Robotic Surgery in India – MPUH-CRS

Source: WHO

World Environment Day 2015

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Environment Day

World environment day is also known as the Environment Day, Eco Day or short form WED. It has been one of the great annual events for years which is being celebrated worldwide by the people aiming to protect the unique and life nurturing Nature on every 5th June.

World Environment Day History

World Environment Day (also called as WED) has been started celebrating as an annual event on every 5th of June since 1973 in order to raise the global awareness about the importance of the healthy and green environment in the human lives, to solve the environmental issues by implementing some positive environmental actions as well as to make aware common public worldwide that everyone is responsible for saving his environment and not only somebody, government or organizations working for it.

World environment day was first established to be celebrated every year by running some effective campaigns by the United Nations General Assembly and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in the conference on Human Environment began from 5th to 16th of June at United Nations in 1972. It was first time celebrated in 1973 with the particular theme “Only one Earth”. Since 1974, the celebration campaign of the world environment day is hosted in different cities of the world.

It is a big annual celebration started by the United Nations General Assembly to engage millions of people from different countries across the globe as well as draw attention of political and health organizations to implement some effective actions.

Why World Environment Day is Celebrated

World environment day annual celebration campaign was started to address the huge environmental issues like wastage and losses of food, deforestation, increasing global warming and so many. Every year celebration is planned according to the particular theme and slogan of the year to bring effectiveness in the campaign all through the world.

It is celebrated to successfully get carbon neutrality, focusing on the forest management, reducing greenhouse effects, promoting bio-fuels production by planting on degraded lands, use of hydro-power to enhance electricity production, encourage common public to use solar water heaters, energy production through solar sources, developing new drainage systems, promoting coral reefs and mangroves restoration in order to get prevented from flooding and erosion including other ways of environmental preservation. Some of the objectives of the world environment day campaign are mentioned below:

  • It is celebrated to make aware the common public about the environmental issues.
  • Encourage common people from different society and communities to actively participate in the celebration as well as become an active agent in developing environmental safety measures.
  • Let them know that community people are very essential to inhibit negative changes towards the environmental issues.
  • Encourage people to make their nearby surroundings safe and clean to enjoy safer, cleaner and more prosperous future.

source:

www.indiacelebrating.com

World Health Day

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World Health Day- 7 April 2015

New data on the harm caused by foodborne illnesses underscore the global threats posed by unsafe foods, and the need for coordinated, cross-border action across the entire food supply chain, according to WHO, which next week is dedicating its annual World Health Day to the issue of food safety.

World Health Day will be celebrated on 7 April, with WHO highlighting the challenges and opportunities associated with food safety under the slogan “From farm to plate, make food safe.”

“Food production has been industrialized and its trade and distribution have been globalized,” says WHO Director-General Dr Margaret Chan. “These changes introduce multiple new opportunities for food to become contaminated with harmful bacteria, viruses, parasites, or chemicals.”

Dr Chan adds: “A local food safety problem can rapidly become an international emergency. Investigation of an outbreak of foodborne disease is vastly more complicated when a single plate or package of food contains ingredients from multiple countries.”

Unsafe food can contain harmful bacteria, viruses, parasites or chemical substances, and cause more than 200 diseases – ranging from diarrhoea to cancers. Examples of unsafe food include undercooked foods of animal origin, fruits and vegetables contaminated with faeces, and shellfish containing marine biotoxins.

Today, WHO is issuing the first findings from what is a broader ongoing analysis of the global burden of foodborne diseases. The full results of this research, being undertaken by WHO’s Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG), are expected to be released in October 2015.

Some important results are related to enteric infections caused by viruses, bacteria and protozoa that enter the body by ingestion of contaminated food. The initial FERG figures, from 2010, show that:

  • there were an estimated 582 million cases of 22 different foodborne enteric diseases and 351 000 associated deaths;
  • the enteric disease agents responsible for most deaths were Salmonella Typhi(52 000 deaths), enteropathogenic E. coli (37 000) and norovirus (35 000);
  • the African region recorded the highest disease burden for enteric foodborne disease, followed by South-East Asia;
  • over 40% people suffering from enteric diseases caused by contaminated food were children aged under 5 years.

Unsafe food also poses major economic risks, especially in a globalized world. Germany’s 2011 E.coli outbreak reportedly caused US$ 1.3 billion in losses for farmers and industries and US$ 236 million in emergency aid payments to 22 European Union Member States.

Efforts to prevent such emergencies can be strengthened, however, through development of robust food safety systems that drive collective government and public action to safeguard against chemical or microbial contamination of food. Global and national level measures can be taken, including using international platforms, like the joint WHO-FAO International Food Safety Authorities Network (INFOSAN), to ensure effective and rapid communication during food safety emergencies.

At the consumer end of the food supply chain, the public plays important roles in promoting food safety, from practising safe food hygiene and learning how to take care when cooking specific foods that may be hazardous (like raw chicken), to reading the labels when buying and preparing food. The WHO Five Keys to Safer Food explain the basic principles that each individual should know all over the world to prevent foodborne diseases.

“It often takes a crisis for the collective consciousness on food safety to be stirred and any serious response to be taken,” says Dr Kazuaki Miyagishima, Director of WHO’s Department of Food Safety and Zoonoses. “The impacts on public health and economies can be great. A sustainable response, therefore, is needed that ensures standards, checks and networks are in place to protect against food safety risks.”

WHO is working to ensure access to adequate, safe, nutritious food for everyone. The Organization supports countries to prevent, detect and respond to foodborne disease outbreaks—in line with the Codex Alimentarius, a collection of international food standards, guidelines and codes of practice covering all the main foods.

Food safety is a cross-cutting issue and shared responsibility that requires participation of non-public health sectors (i.e. agriculture, trade and commerce, environment, tourism) and support of major international and regional agencies and organizations active in the fields of food, emergency aid, and education.

 

Source: WHO

Andrology Training Workshop For PostGraduates

Event Name: Andrology Training Workshop For PostGraduates

Date:26 March 2015 to 28 March 2015

Venue:Jayaramdas Patel Academic Center,
Muljibhai Patel Urological Hospital,
Nadiad, Gujarat, India.

Andrology Training
Andrology Training

Contact Details :
Dr. Pradeep Ganatra,

Mo: +91 9824387701, Email: ganatra@mpuh.org

For Registration Click Here: Training

 

An Introduction to Kidney Stones Part – 2

KIDNEY STONE
Small hard deposits made of acid salts and minerals forms on the interior of Kidneys and are commonly known as Kidney Stones. There are many reasons for why this Stones are formed and it can have severe effect on the Urinary Tract System, Kidneys, and Urinary Bladder. Stones are formed when the Urine gets concentrated, allowing mineral to crystallize and later they stick together in their solid state.
As the Kidney Stone passes through the Urinary Bladder it causes immense pain. While it causes no permanent damage, it does pain a lot. A lot of water intake would help the Kidney Stone pass effortlessly.
There are instances wherein the Stones have to be removed with the help of a surgery. The type of treatment would depend on the doctor’s recommendation to reduce the risk of recurrent Kidney Stones and also to be away from the risk of developing it again.

SYMPTOMS OF KIDNEY STONE
A Kidney Stone shows no symptoms until it starts moving inside the Kidney or when it passes into the Ureter. Ureter is the tube connecting Kidney and Bladder and when the Stone touches the walls of Ureter, it causes various symptoms.
Following are the symptoms of Kidney Stones:

  • Severe pain in the side and back, below the ribs
  • Pain that spreads to the lower abdomen and groin
  • Pain that comes in waves and fluctuates in intensity
  • Pain on urination
  • Pink, red or brown urine
  • Cloudy or foul-smelling urine
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Persistent urge to urinate
  • Urinating more often than usual
  • Fever and chills if an infection is present

DIAGNOSIS OF KIDNEY STONES
If you suspect a Kidney Stone, it’s better to get it diagnosed. It requires certain tests and procedures:
Blood Test: It determines the level of Calcium and Uric acid in the blood. Also it helps monitor the heath of Kidneys and diagnose its conditions.
Urine Test: It requires 24 hours collection of the Urine to know the amount of stones that the person is excreting through Urine.
Imaging Test: With the help of this test, one can see the amount, and size of stones, present in the Kidney. The person would have to undergo X-ray or CT scan that may reveal the required information. Normally, tiny stones are missed during an X-ray but CT scan would capture it all. Other imaging options include an ultrasound, a noninvasive test, and intravenous pyelography, which involves injecting dye into your arm vein and taking X-rays as the dye travels through your kidneys and bladder.
Analysis of stone: In this test, the person is asked to urinate through a strainer to catch the stones. A further lab analysis would reveal the make-up of this stones. Doctor would determine the causes of stones through this analysis.

PROGNOSIS
More than 80% of the Kidney stones passes on their own but it has been observed that Kidney Stones often have high recurrence rate and the patient can develop another stones within 10 years of life span.
Once the type of the stone is determined, the risk of recurrence can be minimized. Analysis of the stone after capturing it would tell its type. In otherwise healthy patients, the major complications of a kidney stone is the potential for infection or the inability to control pain or nausea.

PREVENTING THE KIDNEY STONES

  • Keeping yourself hydrated is the best way to prevent the Kidney Stones. One should be drinking adequate amount of water especially those who sweat more
  • For those with underlying medical conditions, chronic medications are very important
  • It is very essential to drink more water and urinate more for the stone to be excreted in the initial stages itself

An Introduction to Kidney Stones

Kidney Stone and Kidney Stone Surgery

At times a small Calcium Crystal Stone forms inside the part of the Kidney where the Urine is collected. The stones cause pain while urinating. The problem increases when Calcium Crystal Stones falls into the Ureter, a tube that drains the fluid from the Kidneys in to the bladder. There the stones prevent Urine from coming out of the Kidneys and causes severe pain.kidney stone surgery

Kidney removes waste from the body and filters the Blood to make Urine. The same Urine flows from the kidney into the bladder through the Ureter, a thin tube that connects the two. The Bladder empties through the Urethra, a tube much wider than the Ureter.

Urine from the Kidney excrete a variety of minerals and chemicals, when sometimes these minerals and chemicals combine to form stones. With the passage of time, the stones grow in size, sometimes almost an inch in diameter or even larger.

How are they formed?

The reason isn’t exactly known, but usually changes in the acid-base balance (pH) of the urine and the concentration of minerals and chemicals within the urine are all factors that can signify the formation of a stone. Concentrated urine often occurs during an episode of dehydration, setting the stage for the beginning of stone formation. The consequences of that stone, when it is large enough to cause an obstruction, may occur weeks, months, or years later.

Risks Involved

A Kidney stone can infect the Kidney with Pyelonephritis, an inflammation of the renal parenchyma, calyces, and pelvis that is commonly caused by bacterial infection that can spread to the urinary tract or travel through the bloodstream to the kidneys.

When kidney stones pass from the urine collection system into the ureter, they can act like a dam preventing easy flow of urine from the kidney into the bladder. This causes urine to back up, increasing pressure and swelling within the kidney.

Pain in the process

Pain from the Kidney and as the stone passes through the Ureter, the pain increases. Kidney Pain is also known as renal colic Stone can be excruciating and its intensity is similar to that of pain experienced during a child birth. The pain starts from the lower back and radiates to the front of abdomen and in males, it may cause testicular or scrotal pain. It makes the individual totally uncomfortable. Kidney Stone has side effects like Nausea, Vomiting and Sweating.

If not treated the intense pain would be continuous and the pain would considerably increase. Once the stone is in the Bladder, the obstruction is relieved.

Passing of the stone

Since a Urethra is much larger in size than the Ureter, passing of the stone is an easy thing. It passes easily while Urinating and most patients cannot tell when they have eliminated the stone from their bladder.

The severity of the pain does not depend on the size of the stone, but it rather depends on the amount of obstruction and Kidney swelling. Many a times, when Kidney stone passes through the urine’s, a small amount of blood is visible.

Next Article:

In next article we will understand the symptoms and kidney stone surgery.

Expert tips for reducing your risk of kidney disease.

WHY ARE KIDNEYS IMPORTANT ?

Your Kidneys are responsible for five critical body functions

  1. Keeps the blood clean through filtration of the waste products and elimination of excessive fluids from the body in the form of urine
  2. Maintains proper balance of fluid in the body
  3. Secretes a hormone called Erythropoietin, responsible for stimulating the production of RBC (Red Blood Cells) in the Bone Marrow
  4. Produces an Enzyme called Renin, which helps maintain the body Blood Pressure
  5. Converts Vitamin D to its most active form

EFFECTS OF MODERN LIFESTYLE ON KIDNEYS
There is a general notion that all Kidney Diseases are rare and untreatable. This is far from the truth and with the progress in Science and Technology, most of the noted diseases can now be treated but modern lifestyle of a majority of people still negatively impacts people’s health which includes damage to the Kidneys. It is therefore important for everyone to be responsible and maintain a healthy lifestyle.
For Kidneys especially, bigger the load, faster they deteriorate.  In this article, we focus on some simple but effective ways that can help a person minimize the stress on their Kidneys.
First of all let us look at some factors that puts considerable stress on Kidneys,

PRIMARY RISK FOR KIDNEY DISEASES

  • High Diabetes,
  • High Blood Pressure,
  • Genetic,

SECONDARY RISK FOR KIDNEY DISEASES

  • Heart Disease
  • Obesity;
  • Autoimmune Diseases;
  • Urinary Tract Infections
  • and Systemic Infections

STAGES OF KIDNEY DAMAGE

Stage 1: Slight Kidney damage
Stage 2: Mild decrease in Kidney function
Stage 3: Moderate decrease in Kidney function
Stage 4: Severe decrease in Kidney function
Stage 5: End-stage Renal Disease

TIPS FOR HEALTHY KIDNEY

Be active and eat healthy: Weight control is an important factor to control the Kidney Disease. A healthy routine and active lifestyle helps control the weight. Several studies indicate that Kidney malfunctions and Obesity are inter-related and an overweight person has double the chances of developing Kidney problems. Regular exercising with proper diet not only keeps a person fit, but also act as a preventive measure against Kidney disease.

Control BP and Diabetes: Cases of Kidney diseases as a secondary illness are getting more and more evident, especially with the people suffering from Diabetes and Hypertension. Such people should be extra careful regarding their health and take steps to control their blood sugar level to keep the Kidney disease at bay.

Reduce the salt intake: Excessive salt in the diet effects the body blood pressure. An increased blood pressure would put excessive amount of strain on Kidneys resulting in various Kidney disease. Hence once should control the excessive amount of salt intake in the body.

Smoking and Tobacco: Chewing Tobacco deteriorates the Kidneys. People who smoke a lot have higher chances of Heart Diseases. Both the factors combined to contribute towards harming the Kidneys. A Tobacco users and smokers should cut down the intake and slowly quite the practice.

Regular Screenings: There is a need to encourage patients suffering from Diabetes and Hypertension to undergo a systematic CKD screenings at regular intervals. People with Diabetes and high Blood Pressure have high risk of developing a CKD. Get your Kidneys screened regularly and know the disease in early stages.

URINARY SYSTEM: FACTS, FUNCTIONS & DISEASES

The Urinary System plays a very important role in the human body. It produces Urine, a waste fluid excreted by Kidneys, which it stores, and later, passes it out of the body. Urinary System works closely with the Lungs, the Skin, and Intestines to maintain the balance of chemicals in our body. Adults excretes about 1.42 liters of water per day while children would excrete lesser amount, which depends on the amount of fluid consumed by them. If a person is under medication, the amount of Urine excreted would differ.

THE PROCESS OF URINATION

Kidneys are the primary organs of the Urinary System. Blood passes through Kidney, where the proteins are broken down and Urea is separated through Nephrons, the filtering units. Each Nephron has a ball of blood capillaries called Glomerulus and a tube called the Renal Tube. Urea, along with water, and other waste particles, passes through Nephrons and the Renal Tubes, and then out of the Kidneys through two thin tubes called Ureters which are about 8-10 inches long.
This is not one-time process but, Urine is emptied in the bladder, every 10-15 seconds. Urinary Bladder is a hollow organ like a balloon. It stores Urine till it reaches its capacity that is 16 ounces. The body takes 2-5 hours to produce that much of Urine. A tube which allows Urine to pass out of the body is called Urethra.
The only difference in Male Urinary System and a Female Urinary System is the length of Urethra. Females have 1.5 inches long Urethra and Male have 8 inches long Urethra.

SIGNALS FOR URINATION

Nerves in the Bladder are responsible for sending signal to the brain to cause Urinating sensation. When Bladder reaches the maximum storage limit, Nerves emits signals that are captured by the Brain.
Brain encrypts the message that the Bladder is full and the urge to empty it intensifies. Urinating causes relaxation in muscles that tightens while emitting signals.

COMMON DISEASE IN URINARY SYSTEM

If at any point of time, during the entire process, Urine is forced back into the Kidneys, the Urine can cause a Kidney Infection. Or, when bacteria enters a Urinary Tract, it can affect the Urethra, the Kidneys, or even the Bladder causing Urine Infection. This condition is known as a Urinary Tract Infection (UTI). Such type of infection is more common in Females but can also occur in Males. Infections, including yeasts, would cause disorders in body’s reproductive Organs. While Urologists’ treat the Male Reproductive Organs, Gynecologists’ treat the Female Reproductive Organs. One of the ways to treat the infection is to use Antibiotics. But please consult your Doctor before resorting to any medication.

TYPES OF URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS, KIDNEY DISEASES, AND FAILURE

INTERNAL CYSTITIS (IC) – This is a painful chronic Bladder syndrome, wherein the Bladder loses its elasticity. It results in the Bladder being unable to hold adequate Urine.
PROSTATITIS – This infection occurs from the swelling of prostate gland and can cause urgency in Urination. Person suffering from this infection urinates more frequently compared to others along with strong pain during Urination and pain in the Pelvic Regions. It occurs only in Males as Female Reproductive System does not consist Prostrate Glands. Severity of the disease is Prostate Cancer.
KIDNEY STONES – Sometimes consuming something adulterated causes clumps of Calcium Oxalate to form in the Urinary tract, popularly known as Kidney Stones. They causes pain in the back and sides. It can even cause hematuria, resulting in blood in urine.
KIDNEY FAILURE – Medically known as Renal Failure, it is a chronic condition wherein Kidneys are unable to filter the waste from blood. It may be caused by trauma or damage to Kidneys. Renal diseases may lead to Chronic Kidney disorders and might require dialysis or even Kidney Transplantation.
BLADDER CANCER – Difficulty in urination or frequent urination are possible symptom of Bladder Cancer. It can be caused by excessive smoking too.
Please note: Before you react to any uneasiness in your body, do always consult your Doctor for a proper diagnosis.
RENAL CELL CARCINOMA – RCC is a type of Kidney Cancer which might be caused by excessive smoking, hypertension or obesity.
URINARY INCONTINENCE – excessive stress in females can cause the problem of Urine leakage, also known as Urinary Incontinence, and it has a profound impact on quality of life.